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Kriesell's Conjecture ★★

Author(s): Kriesell

Conjecture   Let $ G $ be a graph and let $ T\subseteq V(G) $ such that for any pair $ u,v\in T $ there are $ 2k $ edge-disjoint paths from $ u $ to $ v $ in $ G $. Then $ G $ contains $ k $ edge-disjoint trees, each of which contains $ T $.

Keywords: Disjoint paths; edge-connectivity; spanning trees

2-colouring a graph without a monochromatic maximum clique ★★

Author(s): Hoang; McDiarmid

Conjecture   If $ G $ is a non-empty graph containing no induced odd cycle of length at least $ 5 $, then there is a $ 2 $-vertex colouring of $ G $ in which no maximum clique is monochromatic.

Keywords: maximum clique; Partitioning

Almost all non-Hamiltonian 3-regular graphs are 1-connected ★★

Author(s): Haythorpe

Conjecture   Denote by $ NH(n) $ the number of non-Hamiltonian 3-regular graphs of size $ 2n $, and similarly denote by $ NHB(n) $ the number of non-Hamiltonian 3-regular 1-connected graphs of size $ 2n $.

Is it true that $ \lim\limits_{n \rightarrow \infty} \displaystyle\frac{NHB(n)}{NH(n)} = 1 $?

Keywords: Hamiltonian, Bridge, 3-regular, 1-connected

Erdős–Faber–Lovász conjecture ★★★

Author(s): Erdos; Faber; Lovasz

Conjecture   If $ G $ is a simple graph which is the union of $ k $ pairwise edge-disjoint complete graphs, each of which has $ k $ vertices, then the chromatic number of $ G $ is $ k $.

Keywords: chromatic number

Are there only finite Fermat Primes? ★★★

Author(s):

Conjecture   A Fermat prime is a Fermat number \[ F_n  = 2^{2^n }  + 1 \] that is prime. The only known Fermat primes are F_0 =3,F_1=5,F_2=17,F_3 =257 ,F_4=65537 It is unknown if other fermat primes exist.

Keywords:

Are all Fermat Numbers square-free? ★★★

Author(s):

Conjecture   Are all Fermat Numbers \[ F_n  = 2^{2^{n } }  + 1 \] Square-Free?

Keywords:

Hedetniemi's Conjecture ★★★

Author(s): Hedetniemi

Conjecture   If $ G,H $ are simple finite graphs, then $ \chi(G \times H) = \min \{ \chi(G), \chi(H) \} $.

Here $ G \times H $ is the tensor product (also called the direct or categorical product) of $ G $ and $ H $.

Keywords: categorical product; coloring; homomorphism; tensor product

Choosability of Graph Powers ★★

Author(s): Noel

Question  (Noel, 2013)   Does there exist a function $ f(k)=o(k^2) $ such that for every graph $ G $, \[\text{ch}\left(G^2\right)\leq f\left(\chi\left(G^2\right)\right)?\]

Keywords: choosability; chromatic number; list coloring; square of a graph

Erdős-Posa property for long directed cycles ★★

Author(s): Havet; Maia

Conjecture   Let $ \ell \geq 2 $ be an integer. For every integer $ n\geq 0 $, there exists an integer $ t_n=t_n(\ell) $ such that for every digraph $ D $, either $ D $ has a $ n $ pairwise-disjoint directed cycles of length at least $ \ell $, or there exists a set $ T $ of at most $ t_n $ vertices such that $ D-T $ has no directed cycles of length at least $ \ell $.

Keywords:

Large acyclic induced subdigraph in a planar oriented graph. ★★

Author(s): Harutyunyan

Conjecture   Every planar oriented graph $ D $ has an acyclic induced subdigraph of order at least $ \frac{3}{5} |V(D)| $.

Keywords:

Polignac's Conjecture ★★★

Author(s): de Polignac

Conjecture   Polignac's Conjecture: For any positive even number n, there are infinitely many prime gaps of size n. In other words: There are infinitely many cases of two consecutive prime numbers with difference n.

In particular, this implies:

Conjecture   Twin Prime Conjecture: There are an infinite number of twin primes.

Keywords: prime; prime gap

Alexa's Conjecture on Primality ★★

Author(s): Alexa

Definition   Let $ r_i $ be the unique integer (with respect to a fixed $ p\in\mathbb{N} $) such that

$$(2i+1)^{p-1} \equiv r_i \pmod p ~~\text{ and } ~ 0 \le r_i < p. $$

Conjecture   A natural number $ p \ge 8 $ is a prime iff $$ \displaystyle \sum_{i=1}^{\left \lfloor \frac{\sqrt[3]p}{2} \right \rfloor} r_i = \left \lfloor \frac{\sqrt[3]p}{2} \right \rfloor $$

Keywords: primality

P vs. BPP ★★★

Author(s): Folklore

Conjecture   Can all problems that can be computed by a probabilistic Turing machine (with error probability < 1/3) in polynomial time be solved by a deterministic Turing machine in polynomial time? That is, does P = BPP?

Keywords: BPP; circuit complexity; pseudorandom generators

Goldbach conjecture ★★★★

Author(s): Goldbach

Conjecture   Every even integer greater than 2 is the sum of two primes.

Keywords: additive basis; prime

Goldberg's conjecture ★★★

Author(s): Goldberg

The overfull parameter is defined as follows: \[ w(G) = \max_{H \subseteq G} \left\lceil \frac{ |E(H)| }{ \lfloor \tfrac{1}{2} |V(H)| \rfloor} \right\rceil. \]

Conjecture   Every graph $ G $ satisfies $ \chi'(G) \le \max\{ \Delta(G) + 1, w(G) \} $.

Keywords: edge-coloring; multigraph

Cyclic spanning subdigraph with small cyclomatic number ★★

Author(s): Bondy

Conjecture   Let $ D $ be a digraph all of whose strong components are nontrivial. Then $ D $ contains a cyclic spanning subdigraph with cyclomatic number at most $ \alpha(D) $.

Keywords:

inverse of an integer matrix ★★

Author(s): Gregory

Question   I've been working on this for a long time and I'm getting nowhere. Could you help me or at least tell me where to look for help. Suppose D is an m-by-m diagonal matrix with integer elements all $ \ge 2 $. Suppose X is an m-by-n integer matrix $ (m \le n) $. Consider the partitioned matrix M = [D X]. Obviously M has full row rank so it has a right inverse of rational numbers. The question is, under what conditions does it have an integer right inverse? My guess, which I can't prove, is that the integers in each row need to be relatively prime.

Keywords: invertable matrices, integer matrices

Minimum number of arc-disjoint transitive subtournaments of order 3 in a tournament ★★

Author(s): Yuster

Conjecture   If $ T $ is a tournament of order $ n $, then it contains $ \left \lceil n(n-1)/6 - n/3\right\rceil $ arc-disjoint transitive subtournaments of order 3.

Keywords:

Arc-disjoint directed cycles in regular directed graphs ★★

Author(s): Alon; McDiarmid; Molloy

Conjecture   If $ G $ is a $ k $-regular directed graph with no parallel arcs, then $ G $ contains a collection of $ {k+1 \choose 2} $ arc-disjoint directed cycles.

Keywords:

Jacob Palis Conjecture(Finitude of Attractors)(Dynamical Systems) ★★★★

Author(s):

Conjecture   Let $ Diff^{r}(M)  $ be the space of $ C^{r} $ Diffeomorphisms on the connected , compact and boundaryles manifold M and $ \chi^{r}(M) $ the space of $ C^{r} $ vector fields. There is a dense set $ D\subset Diff^{r}(M) $ ($ D\subset \chi^{r}(M) $ ) such that $ \forall f\in D $ exhibit a finite number of attractor whose basins cover Lebesgue almost all ambient space $ M $

This is a very Deep and Hard problem in Dynamical Systems . It present the dream of the dynamicist mathematicians .

Keywords: Attractors , basins, Finite