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Edge-Unfolding Convex Polyhedra ★★

Author(s): Shephard

Conjecture   Every convex polyhedron has a (nonoverlapping) edge unfolding.

Keywords: folding; nets

Point sets with no empty pentagon

Author(s): Wood

Problem   Classify the point sets with no empty pentagon.

Keywords: combinatorial geometry; visibility graph

Singmaster's conjecture ★★

Author(s): Singmaster

Conjecture   There is a finite upper bound on the multiplicities of entries in Pascal's triangle, other than the number $ 1 $.

The number $ 2 $ appears once in Pascal's triangle, $ 3 $ appears twice, $ 6 $ appears three times, and $ 10 $ appears $ 4 $ times. There are infinite families of numbers known to appear $ 6 $ times. The only number known to appear $ 8 $ times is $ 3003 $. It is not known whether any number appears more than $ 8 $ times. The conjectured upper bound could be $ 8 $; Singmaster thought it might be $ 10 $ or $ 12 $. See Singmaster's conjecture.

Keywords: Pascal's triangle

Waring rank of determinant ★★

Author(s): Teitler

Question   What is the Waring rank of the determinant of a $ d \times d $ generic matrix?

For simplicity say we work over the complex numbers. The $ d \times d $ generic matrix is the matrix with entries $ x_{i,j} $ for $ 1 \leq i,j \leq d $. Its determinant is a homogeneous form of degree $ d $, in $ d^2 $ variables. If $ F $ is a homogeneous form of degree $ d $, a power sum expression for $ F $ is an expression of the form $ F = \ell_1^d+\dotsb+\ell_r^d $, the $ \ell_i $ (homogeneous) linear forms. The Waring rank of $ F $ is the least number of terms $ r $ in any power sum expression for $ F $. For example, the expression $ xy = \frac{1}{4}(x+y)^2 - \frac{1}{4}(x-y)^2 $ means that $ xy $ has Waring rank $ 2 $ (it can't be less than $ 2 $, as $ xy \neq \ell_1^2 $).

The $ 2 \times 2 $ generic determinant $ x_{1,1}x_{2,2}-x_{1,2}x_{2,1} $ (or $ ad-bc $) has Waring rank $ 4 $. The Waring rank of the $ 3 \times 3 $ generic determinant is at least $ 14 $ and no more than $ 20 $, see for instance Lower bound for ranks of invariant forms, Example 4.1. The Waring rank of the permanent is also of interest. The comparison between the determinant and permanent is potentially relevant to Valiant's "VP versus VNP" problem.

Keywords: Waring rank, determinant

Monochromatic vertex colorings inherited from Perfect Matchings ★★★


Conjecture   For which values of $ n $ and $ d $ are there bi-colored graphs on $ n $ vertices and $ d $ different colors with the property that all the $ d $ monochromatic colorings have unit weight, and every other coloring cancels out?


Cycle Double Covers Containing Predefined 2-Regular Subgraphs ★★★

Author(s): Arthur; Hoffmann-Ostenhof

Conjecture   Let $ G $ be a $ 2 $-connected cubic graph and let $ S $ be a $ 2 $-regular subgraph such that $ G-E(S) $ is connected. Then $ G $ has a cycle double cover which contains $ S $ (i.e all cycles of $ S $).


Monochromatic reachability in arc-colored digraphs ★★★

Author(s): Sands; Sauer; Woodrow

Conjecture   For every $ k $, there exists an integer $ f(k) $ such that if $ D $ is a digraph whose arcs are colored with $ k $ colors, then $ D $ has a $ S $ set which is the union of $ f(k) $ stables sets so that every vertex has a monochromatic path to some vertex in $ S $.


3-Decomposition Conjecture ★★★

Author(s): Arthur; Hoffmann-Ostenhof

Conjecture   (3-Decomposition Conjecture) Every connected cubic graph $ G $ has a decomposition into a spanning tree, a family of cycles and a matching.

Keywords: cubic graph

Which outer reloids are equal to inner ones ★★

Author(s): Porton

Warning: This formulation is vague (not exact).

Question   Characterize the set $ \{f\in\mathsf{FCD} \mid (\mathsf{RLD})_{\mathrm{in}} f=(\mathsf{RLD})_{\mathrm{out}} f\} $. In other words, simplify this formula.

The problem seems rather difficult.


A diagram about funcoids and reloids ★★

Author(s): Porton

Define for posets with order $ \sqsubseteq $:

  1. $ \Phi_{\ast} f = \lambda b \in \mathfrak{B}: \bigcup \{ x \in \mathfrak{A} \mid f x \sqsubseteq b \} $;
  2. $ \Phi^{\ast} f = \lambda b \in \mathfrak{A}: \bigcap \{ x \in \mathfrak{B} \mid f x \sqsupseteq b \} $.

Note that the above is a generalization of monotone Galois connections (with $ \max $ and $ \min $ replaced with suprema and infima).

Then we have the following diagram:

What is at the node "other" in the diagram is unknown.

Conjecture   "Other" is $ \lambda f\in\mathsf{FCD}: \top $.
Question   What repeated applying of $ \Phi_{\ast} $ and $ \Phi^{\ast} $ to "other" leads to? Particularly, does repeated applying $ \Phi_{\ast} $ and/or $ \Phi^{\ast} $ to the node "other" lead to finite or infinite sets?

Keywords: Galois connections

Outward reloid of composition vs composition of outward reloids ★★

Author(s): Porton

Conjecture   For every composable funcoids $ f $ and $ g $ $$(\mathsf{RLD})_{\mathrm{out}}(g\circ f)\sqsupseteq(\mathsf{RLD})_{\mathrm{out}}g\circ(\mathsf{RLD})_{\mathrm{out}}f.$$

Keywords: outward reloid

Sum of prime and semiprime conjecture ★★

Author(s): Geoffrey Marnell

Conjecture   Every even number greater than $ 10 $ can be represented as the sum of an odd prime number and an odd semiprime .

Keywords: prime; semiprime

A funcoid related to directed topological spaces ★★

Author(s): Porton

Conjecture   Let $ R $ be the complete funcoid corresponding to the usual topology on extended real line $ [-\infty,+\infty] = \mathbb{R}\cup\{-\infty,+\infty\} $. Let $ \geq $ be the order on this set. Then $ R\sqcap^{\mathsf{FCD}}\mathord{\geq} $ is a complete funcoid.
Proposition   It is easy to prove that $ \langle R\sqcap^{\mathsf{FCD}}\mathord{\geq}\rangle \{x\} $ is the infinitely small right neighborhood filter of point $ x\in[-\infty,+\infty] $.

If proved true, the conjecture then can be generalized to a wider class of posets.


Infinite distributivity of meet over join for a principal funcoid ★★

Author(s): Porton

Conjecture   $ f \sqcap \bigsqcup S = \bigsqcup \langle f \sqcap \rangle^{\ast} S $ for principal funcoid $ f $ and a set $ S $ of funcoids of appropriate sources and destinations.

Keywords: distributivity; principal funcoid

Weak saturation of the cube in the clique

Author(s): Morrison; Noel


Determine $ \text{wsat}(K_n,Q_3) $.

Keywords: bootstrap percolation; hypercube; Weak saturation

Convex Equipartitions with Extreme Perimeter ★★

Author(s): Nandakumar

To divide a given 2D convex region C into a specified number n of convex pieces all of equal area (perimeters could be different) such that the total perimeter of pieces is (1) maximized (2) minimized.

Remark: It appears maximizing the total perimeter is the easier problem.

Keywords: convex equipartition

Turán Problem for $10$-Cycles in the Hypercube ★★

Author(s): Erdos

Problem   Bound the extremal number of $ C_{10} $ in the hypercube.

Keywords: cycles; extremal combinatorics; hypercube

Extremal $4$-Neighbour Bootstrap Percolation in the Hypercube ★★

Author(s): Morrison; Noel

Problem   Determine the smallest percolating set for the $ 4 $-neighbour bootstrap process in the hypercube.

Keywords: bootstrap percolation; extremal combinatorics; hypercube; percolation

Saturation in the Hypercube ★★

Author(s): Morrison; Noel; Scott

Question   What is the saturation number of cycles of length $ 2\ell $ in the $ d $-dimensional hypercube?

Keywords: cycles; hypercube; minimum saturation; saturation

Cycles in Graphs of Large Chromatic Number ★★

Author(s): Brewster; McGuinness; Moore; Noel

Conjecture   If $ \chi(G)>k $, then $ G $ contains at least $ \frac{(k+1)(k-1)!}{2} $ cycles of length $ 0\bmod k $.

Keywords: chromatic number; cycles