Random

Fractional Hadwiger ★★

Author(s): Harvey; Reed; Seymour; Wood

Conjecture   For every graph $ G $,
(a) $ \chi_f(G)\leq\text{had}(G) $
(b) $ \chi(G)\leq\text{had}_f(G) $
(c) $ \chi_f(G)\leq\text{had}_f(G) $.

Keywords: fractional coloring, minors

Decomposition of completions of reloids ★★

Author(s): Porton

Conjecture   For composable reloids $ f $ and $ g $ it holds
    \item $ \operatorname{Compl} ( g \circ f) = ( \operatorname{Compl} g) \circ f $ if $ f $ is a co-complete reloid; \item $ \operatorname{CoCompl} ( f \circ g) = f \circ \operatorname{CoCompl} g $ if $ f $ is a complete reloid; \item $ \operatorname{CoCompl} ( ( \operatorname{Compl} g) \circ f) = \operatorname{Compl} ( g \circ   ( \operatorname{CoCompl} f)) = ( \operatorname{Compl} g) \circ ( \operatorname{CoCompl} f) $; \item $ \operatorname{Compl} ( g \circ ( \operatorname{Compl} f)) = \operatorname{Compl} ( g \circ   f) $; \item $ \operatorname{CoCompl} ( ( \operatorname{CoCompl} g) \circ f) = \operatorname{CoCompl} ( g   \circ f) $.

Keywords: co-completion; completion; reloid

Inequality for square summable complex series ★★

Author(s): Retkes

Conjecture   For all $ \alpha=(\alpha_1,\alpha_2,\ldots)\in l_2(\cal{C}) $ the following inequality holds $$\sum_{n\geq 1}|\alpha_n|^2\geq \frac{6}{\pi^2}\sum_{k\geq0}\bigg| \sum_{l\geq0}\frac{1}{l+1}\alpha_{2^k(2l+1)}\bigg|^2 $$

Keywords: Inequality

Three-chromatic (0,2)-graphs ★★

Author(s): Payan

Question   Are there any (0,2)-graphs with chromatic number exactly three?

Keywords:

Funcoidal products inside an inward reloid ★★

Author(s): Porton

Conjecture   (solved) If $ a \times^{\mathsf{\ensuremath{\operatorname{RLD}}}} b \subseteq \left( \mathsf{\ensuremath{\operatorname{RLD}}} \right)_{\ensuremath{\operatorname{in}}} f $ then $ a \times^{\mathsf{\ensuremath{\operatorname{FCD}}}} b \subseteq f $ for every funcoid $ f $ and atomic f.o. $ a $ and $ b $ on the source and destination of $ f $ correspondingly.

A stronger conjecture:

Conjecture   If $ \mathcal{A} \times^{\mathsf{\ensuremath{\operatorname{RLD}}}} \mathcal{B} \subseteq \left( \mathsf{\ensuremath{\operatorname{RLD}}} \right)_{\ensuremath{\operatorname{in}}} f $ then $ \mathcal{A} \times^{\mathsf{\ensuremath{\operatorname{FCD}}}} \mathcal{B} \subseteq f $ for every funcoid $ f $ and $ \mathcal{A} \in \mathfrak{F} \left( \ensuremath{\operatorname{Src}}f \right) $, $ \mathcal{B} \in \mathfrak{F} \left( \ensuremath{\operatorname{Dst}}f \right) $.

Keywords: inward reloid

Distribution and upper bound of mimic numbers ★★

Author(s): Bhattacharyya

Problem  

Let the notation $ a|b $ denote ''$ a $ divides $ b $''. The mimic function in number theory is defined as follows [1].

Definition   For any positive integer $ \mathcal{N} = \sum_{i=0}^{n}\mathcal{X}_{i}\mathcal{M}^{i} $ divisible by $ \mathcal{D} $, the mimic function, $ f(\mathcal{D} | \mathcal{N}) $, is given by,

$$ f(\mathcal{D} | \mathcal{N}) = \sum_{i=0}^{n}\mathcal{X}_{i}(\mathcal{M}-\mathcal{D})^{i} $$

By using this definition of mimic function, the mimic number of any non-prime integer is defined as follows [1].

Definition   The number $ m $ is defined to be the mimic number of any positive integer $ \mathcal{N} = \sum_{i=0}^{n}\mathcal{X}_{i}\mathcal{M}^{i} $, with respect to $ \mathcal{D} $, for the minimum value of which $ f^{m}(\mathcal{D} | \mathcal{N}) = \mathcal{D} $.

Given these two definitions and a positive integer $ \mathcal{D} $, find the distribution of mimic numbers of those numbers divisible by $ \mathcal{D} $.

Again, find whether there is an upper bound of mimic numbers for a set of numbers divisible by any fixed positive integer $ \mathcal{D} $.

Keywords: Divisibility; mimic function; mimic number

Transversal achievement game on a square grid ★★

Author(s): Erickson

Problem   Two players alternately write O's (first player) and X's (second player) in the unoccupied cells of an $ n \times  n $ grid. The first player (if any) to occupy a set of $ n $ cells having no two cells in the same row or column is the winner. What is the outcome of the game given optimal play?

Keywords: game

Exponential Algorithms for Knapsack ★★

Author(s): Lipton

Conjecture  

The famous 0-1 Knapsack problem is: Given $ a_{1},a_{2},\dots,a_{n} $ and $ b $ integers, determine whether or not there are $ 0-1 $ values $ x_{1},x_{2},\dots,x_{n} $ so that $$ \sum_{i=1}^{n} a_{i}x_{i} = b.$$ The best known worst-case algorithm runs in time $ 2^{n/2} $ times a polynomial in $ n $. Is there an algorithm that runs in time $ 2^{n/3} $?

Keywords: Algorithm construction; Exponential-time algorithm; Knapsack

Triangle-packing vs triangle edge-transversal. ★★

Author(s): Tuza

Conjecture   If $ G $ has at most $ k $ edge-disjoint triangles, then there is a set of $ 2k $ edges whose deletion destroys every triangle.

Keywords:

The Crossing Number of the Complete Graph ★★★

Author(s):

The crossing number $ cr(G) $ of $ G $ is the minimum number of crossings in all drawings of $ G $ in the plane.

Conjecture   $ \displaystyle cr(K_n) =   \frac 14 \floor{\frac n2} \floor{\frac{n-1}2} \floor{\frac{n-2}2} \floor{\frac{n-3}2} $

Keywords: complete graph; crossing number

Directed path of length twice the minimum outdegree ★★★

Author(s): Thomassé

Conjecture   Every oriented graph with minimum outdegree $ k $ contains a directed path of length $ 2k $.

Keywords:

Cube-Simplex conjecture ★★★

Author(s): Kalai

Conjecture   For every positive integer $ k $, there exists an integer $ d $ so that every polytope of dimension $ \ge d $ has a $ k $-dimensional face which is either a simplex or is combinatorially isomorphic to a $ k $-dimensional cube.

Keywords: cube; facet; polytope; simplex

The 4x5 chessboard complex is the complement of a link, which link? ★★

Author(s): David Eppstein

Problem   Ian Agol and Matthias Goerner observed that the 4x5 chessboard complex is the complement of many distinct links in the 3-sphere. Their observation is non-constructive, as it uses the resolution of the Poincare Conjecture. Find specific links that have the 4x5 chessboard complex as their complement.

Keywords: knot theory, links, chessboard complex

Rota's unimodal conjecture ★★★

Author(s): Rota

Let $ M $ be a matroid of rank $ r $, and for $ 0 \le i \le r $ let $ w_i $ be the number of closed sets of rank $ i $.

Conjecture   $ w_0,w_1,\ldots,w_r $ is unimodal.
Conjecture   $ w_0,w_1,\ldots,w_r $ is log-concave.

Keywords: flat; log-concave; matroid

Edge-antipodal colorings of cubes ★★

Author(s): Norine

We let $ Q_d $ denote the $ d $-dimensional cube graph. A map $ \phi : E(Q_d) \rightarrow \{0,1\} $ is called edge-antipodal if $ \phi(e) \neq \phi(e') $ whenever $ e,e' $ are antipodal edges.

Conjecture   If $ d \ge 2 $ and $ \phi : E(Q_d) \rightarrow \{0,1\} $ is edge-antipodal, then there exist a pair of antipodal vertices $ v,v' \in V(Q_d) $ which are joined by a monochromatic path.

Keywords: antipodal; cube; edge-coloring

Growth of finitely presented groups ★★★

Author(s): Adyan

Problem   Does there exist a finitely presented group of intermediate growth?

Keywords: finitely presented; growth

Circular choosability of planar graphs

Author(s): Mohar

Let $ G = (V, E) $ be a graph. If $ p $ and $ q $ are two integers, a $ (p,q) $-colouring of $ G $ is a function $ c $ from $ V $ to $ \{0,\dots,p-1\} $ such that $ q \le |c(u)-c(v)| \le p-q $ for each edge $ uv\in E $. Given a list assignment $ L $ of $ G $, i.e.~a mapping that assigns to every vertex $ v $ a set of non-negative integers, an $ L $-colouring of $ G $ is a mapping $ c : V \to N $ such that $ c(v)\in L(v) $ for every $ v\in V $. A list assignment $ L $ is a $ t $-$ (p,q) $-list-assignment if $ L(v) \subseteq \{0,\dots,p-1\} $ and $ |L(v)| \ge tq $ for each vertex $ v \in V $ . Given such a list assignment $ L $, the graph G is $ (p,q) $-$ L $-colourable if there exists a $ (p,q) $-$ L $-colouring $ c $, i.e. $ c $ is both a $ (p,q) $-colouring and an $ L $-colouring. For any real number $ t \ge 1 $, the graph $ G $ is $ t $-$ (p,q) $-choosable if it is $ (p,q) $-$ L $-colourable for every $ t $-$ (p,q) $-list-assignment $ L $. Last, $ G $ is circularly $ t $-choosable if it is $ t $-$ (p,q) $-choosable for any $ p $, $ q $. The circular choosability (or circular list chromatic number or circular choice number) of G is $$cch(G) := \inf\{t \ge 1 : G \text{ is circularly $t$-choosable}\}.$$

Problem   What is the best upper bound on circular choosability for planar graphs?

Keywords: choosability; circular colouring; planar graphs

Graphs of exact colorings ★★

Author(s):

Conjecture For $  c \geq m \geq 1  $, let $  P(c,m)  $ be the statement that given any exact $  c  $-coloring of the edges of a complete countably infinite graph (that is, a coloring with $  c  $ colors all of which must be used at least once), there exists an exactly $  m  $-colored countably infinite complete subgraph. Then $  P(c,m)  $ is true if and only if $  m=1  $, $  m=2  $, or $  c=m  $.

Keywords:

Jorgensen's Conjecture ★★★

Author(s): Jorgensen

Conjecture   Every 6-connected graph without a $ K_6 $ minor is apex (planar plus one vertex).

Keywords: connectivity; minor

Woodall's Conjecture ★★★

Author(s): Woodall

Conjecture   If $ G $ is a directed graph with smallest directed cut of size $ k $, then $ G $ has $ k $ disjoint dijoins.

Keywords: digraph; packing

Hamiltonian cycles in line graphs of infinite graphs ★★

Author(s): Georgakopoulos

Conjecture  
    \item If $ G $ is a 4-edge-connected locally finite graph, then its line graph is hamiltonian. \item If the line graph $ L(G) $ of a locally finite graph $ G $ is 4-connected, then $ L(G) $ is hamiltonian.

Keywords: hamiltonian; infinite graph; line graphs

Linial-Berge path partition duality ★★★

Author(s): Berge; Linial

Conjecture   The minimum $ k $-norm of a path partition on a directed graph $ D $ is no more than the maximal size of an induced $ k $-colorable subgraph.

Keywords: coloring; directed path; partition

Wall-Sun-Sun primes and Fibonacci divisibility ★★

Author(s):

Conjecture   For any prime $ p $, there exists a Fibonacci number divisible by $ p $ exactly once.

Equivalently:

Conjecture   For any prime $ p>5 $, $ p^2 $ does not divide $ F_{p-\left(\frac p5\right)} $ where $ \left(\frac mn\right) $ is the Legendre symbol.

Keywords: Fibonacci; prime

Subset-sums equality (pigeonhole version) ★★★

Author(s):

Problem   Let $ a_1,a_2,\ldots,a_n $ be natural numbers with $ \sum_{i=1}^n a_i < 2^n - 1 $. It follows from the pigeon-hole principle that there exist distinct subsets $ I,J \subseteq \{1,\ldots,n\} $ with $ \sum_{i \in I} a_i = \sum_{j \in J} a_j $. Is it possible to find such a pair $ I,J $ in polynomial time?

Keywords: polynomial algorithm; search problem

A homomorphism problem for flows ★★

Author(s): DeVos

Conjecture   Let $ M,M' $ be abelian groups and let $ B \subseteq M $ and $ B' \subseteq M' $ satisfy $ B=-B $ and $ B' = -B' $. If there is a homomorphism from $ Cayley(M,B) $ to $ Cayley(M',B') $, then every graph with a B-flow has a B'-flow.

Keywords: homomorphism; nowhere-zero flow; tension

Giuga's Conjecture on Primality ★★

Author(s): Giuseppe Giuga

Conjecture   $ p $ is a prime iff $ ~\displaystyle \sum_{i=1}^{p-1} i^{p-1} \equiv -1 \pmod p $

Keywords: primality

The Double Cap Conjecture ★★

Author(s): Kalai

Conjecture   The largest measure of a Lebesgue measurable subset of the unit sphere of $ \mathbb{R}^n $ containing no pair of orthogonal vectors is attained by two open caps of geodesic radius $ \pi/4 $ around the north and south poles.

Keywords: combinatorial geometry; independent set; orthogonality; projective plane; sphere

trace inequality ★★

Author(s):

Let $ A,B $ be positive semidefinite, by Jensen's inequality, it is easy to see $ [tr(A^s+B^s)]^{\frac{1}{s}}\leq [tr(A^r+B^r)]^{\frac{1}{r}} $, whenever $ s>r>0 $.

What about the $ tr(A^s+B^s)^{\frac{1}{s}}\leq tr(A^r+B^r)^{\frac{1}{r}} $, is it still valid?

Keywords:

Every 4-connected toroidal graph has a Hamilton cycle ★★

Author(s): Grunbaum; Nash-Williams

Conjecture   Every 4-connected toroidal graph has a Hamilton cycle.

Keywords:

Are almost all graphs determined by their spectrum? ★★★

Author(s):

Problem   Are almost all graphs uniquely determined by the spectrum of their adjacency matrix?

Keywords: cospectral; graph invariant; spectrum

Bounding the on-line choice number in terms of the choice number ★★

Author(s): Zhu

Question   Are there graphs for which $ \text{ch}^{\text{OL}}-\text{ch} $ is arbitrarily large?

Keywords: choosability; list coloring; on-line choosability

Algebraic independence of pi and e ★★★

Author(s):

Conjecture   $ \pi $ and $ e $ are algebraically independent

Keywords: algebraic independence

Are there only finite Fermat Primes? ★★★

Author(s):

Conjecture   A Fermat prime is a Fermat number \[ F_n  = 2^{2^n }  + 1 \] that is prime. The only known Fermat primes are F_0 =3,F_1=5,F_2=17,F_3 =257 ,F_4=65537 It is unknown if other fermat primes exist.

Keywords:

Monochromatic empty triangles ★★★

Author(s):

If $ X \subseteq {\mathbb R}^2 $ is a finite set of points which is 2-colored, an empty triangle is a set $ T \subseteq X $ with $ |T|=3 $ so that the convex hull of $ T $ is disjoint from $ X \setminus T $. We say that $ T $ is monochromatic if all points in $ T $ are the same color.

Conjecture   There exists a fixed constant $ c $ with the following property. If $ X \subseteq {\mathbb R}^2 $ is a set of $ n $ points in general position which is 2-colored, then it has $ \ge cn^2 $ monochromatic empty triangles.

Keywords: empty triangle; general position; ramsey theory

Antichains in the cycle continuous order ★★

Author(s): DeVos

If $ G $,$ H $ are graphs, a function $ f : E(G) \rightarrow E(H) $ is called cycle-continuous if the pre-image of every element of the (binary) cycle space of $ H $ is a member of the cycle space of $ G $.

Problem   Does there exist an infinite set of graphs $ \{G_1,G_2,\ldots \} $ so that there is no cycle continuous mapping between $ G_i $ and $ G_j $ whenever $ i \neq j $ ?

Keywords: antichain; cycle; poset

Petersen coloring conjecture ★★★

Author(s): Jaeger

Conjecture   Let $ G $ be a cubic graph with no bridge. Then there is a coloring of the edges of $ G $ using the edges of the Petersen graph so that any three mutually adjacent edges of $ G $ map to three mutually adjancent edges in the Petersen graph.

Keywords: cubic; edge-coloring; Petersen graph

Linear Hypergraphs with Dimension 3 ★★

Author(s): de Fraysseix; Ossona de Mendez; Rosenstiehl

Conjecture   Any linear hypergraph with incidence poset of dimension at most 3 is the intersection hypergraph of a family of triangles and segments in the plane.

Keywords: Hypergraphs

Packing T-joins ★★

Author(s): DeVos

Conjecture   There exists a fixed constant $ c $ (probably $ c=1 $ suffices) so that every graft with minimum $ T $-cut size at least $ k $ contains a $ T $-join packing of size at least $ (2/3)k-c $.

Keywords: packing; T-join

Large acyclic induced subdigraph in a planar oriented graph. ★★

Author(s): Harutyunyan

Conjecture   Every planar oriented graph $ D $ has an acyclic induced subdigraph of order at least $ \frac{3}{5} |V(D)| $.

Keywords:

List Total Colouring Conjecture ★★

Author(s): Borodin; Kostochka; Woodall

Conjecture   If $ G $ is the total graph of a multigraph, then $ \chi_\ell(G)=\chi(G) $.

Keywords: list coloring; Total coloring; total graphs

Edge-disjoint Hamilton cycles in highly strongly connected tournaments. ★★

Author(s): Thomassen

Conjecture   For every $ k\geq 2 $, there is an integer $ f(k) $ so that every strongly $ f(k) $-connected tournament has $ k $ edge-disjoint Hamilton cycles.

Keywords:

Inverse Galois Problem ★★★★

Author(s): Hilbert

Conjecture   Every finite group is the Galois group of some finite algebraic extension of $ \mathbb Q $.

Keywords:

Arc-disjoint directed cycles in regular directed graphs ★★

Author(s): Alon; McDiarmid; Molloy

Conjecture   If $ G $ is a $ k $-regular directed graph with no parallel arcs, then $ G $ contains a collection of $ {k+1 \choose 2} $ arc-disjoint directed cycles.

Keywords:

Few subsequence sums in Z_n x Z_n ★★

Author(s): Bollobas; Leader

Conjecture   For every $ 0 \le t \le n-1 $, the sequence in $ {\mathbb Z}_n^2 $ consisting of $ n-1 $ copes of $ (1,0) $ and $ t $ copies of $ (0,1) $ has the fewest number of distinct subsequence sums over all zero-free sequences from $ {\mathbb Z}_n^2 $ of length $ n-1+t $.

Keywords: subsequence sum; zero sum

Euler-Mascheroni constant ★★★

Author(s):

Question   Is Euler-Mascheroni constant an transcendental number?

Keywords: constant; Euler; irrational; Mascheroni; rational; transcendental

Oriented trees in n-chromatic digraphs ★★★

Author(s): Burr

Conjecture   Every digraph with chromatic number at least $ 2k-2 $ contains every oriented tree of order $ k $ as a subdigraph.

Keywords:

Laplacian Degrees of a Graph ★★

Author(s): Guo

Conjecture   If $ G $ is a connected graph on $ n $ vertices, then $ c_k(G) \ge d_k(G) $ for $ k = 1, 2, \dots, n-1 $.

Keywords: degree sequence; Laplacian matrix

5-flow conjecture ★★★★

Author(s): Tutte

Conjecture   Every bridgeless graph has a nowhere-zero 5-flow.

Keywords: cubic; nowhere-zero flow

Erdös-Szekeres conjecture ★★★

Author(s): Erdos; Szekeres

Conjecture   Every set of $ 2^{n-2} + 1 $ points in the plane in general position contains a subset of $ n $ points which form a convex $ n $-gon.

Keywords: combinatorial geometry; Convex Polygons; ramsey theory

The Berge-Fulkerson conjecture ★★★★

Author(s): Berge; Fulkerson

Conjecture   If $ G $ is a bridgeless cubic graph, then there exist 6 perfect matchings $ M_1,\ldots,M_6 $ of $ G $ with the property that every edge of $ G $ is contained in exactly two of $ M_1,\ldots,M_6 $.

Keywords: cubic; perfect matching