Diophantine quintuple conjecture ★★


Definition   A set of m positive integers $ \{a_1, a_2, \dots, a_m\} $ is called a Diophantine $ m $-tuple if $ a_i\cdot a_j + 1 $ is a perfect square for all $ 1 \leq i < j \leq m $.
Conjecture  (1)   Diophantine quintuple does not exist.

It would follow from the following stronger conjecture [Da]:

Conjecture  (2)   If $ \{a, b, c, d\} $ is a Diophantine quadruple and $ d > \max \{a, b, c\} $, then $ d = a + b + c + 2bc + 2\sqrt{(ab+1)(ac+1)(bc+1)}. $


Finite entailment of Positive Horn logic ★★

Author(s): Martin

Question   Positive Horn logic (pH) is the fragment of FO involving exactly $ \exists, \forall, \wedge, = $. Does the fragment $ pH \wedge \neg pH $ have the finite model property?

Keywords: entailment; finite satisfiability; horn logic

Simultaneous partition of hypergraphs ★★

Author(s): Kühn; Osthus

Problem   Let $ H_1 $ and $ H_2 $ be two $ r $-uniform hypergraph on the same vertex set $ V $. Does there always exist a partition of $ V $ into $ r $ classes $ V_1, \dots , V_r $ such that for both $ i=1,2 $, at least $ r!m_i/r^r -o(m_i) $ hyperedges of $ H_i $ meet each of the classes $ V_1, \dots , V_r $?


Rota's basis conjecture ★★★

Author(s): Rota

Conjecture   Let $ V $ be a vector space of dimension $ n $ and let $ B_1,\ldots,B_n \subseteq V $ be bases. Then there exist $ n $ disjoint transversals of $ B_1,\ldots,B_n $ each of which is a base.

Keywords: base; latin square; linear algebra; matroid; transversal

Distribution and upper bound of mimic numbers ★★

Author(s): Bhattacharyya


Let the notation $ a|b $ denote ''$ a $ divides $ b $''. The mimic function in number theory is defined as follows [1].

Definition   For any positive integer $ \mathcal{N} = \sum_{i=0}^{n}\mathcal{X}_{i}\mathcal{M}^{i} $ divisible by $ \mathcal{D} $, the mimic function, $ f(\mathcal{D} | \mathcal{N}) $, is given by,

$$ f(\mathcal{D} | \mathcal{N}) = \sum_{i=0}^{n}\mathcal{X}_{i}(\mathcal{M}-\mathcal{D})^{i} $$

By using this definition of mimic function, the mimic number of any non-prime integer is defined as follows [1].

Definition   The number $ m $ is defined to be the mimic number of any positive integer $ \mathcal{N} = \sum_{i=0}^{n}\mathcal{X}_{i}\mathcal{M}^{i} $, with respect to $ \mathcal{D} $, for the minimum value of which $ f^{m}(\mathcal{D} | \mathcal{N}) = \mathcal{D} $.

Given these two definitions and a positive integer $ \mathcal{D} $, find the distribution of mimic numbers of those numbers divisible by $ \mathcal{D} $.

Again, find whether there is an upper bound of mimic numbers for a set of numbers divisible by any fixed positive integer $ \mathcal{D} $.

Keywords: Divisibility; mimic function; mimic number

Are there an infinite number of lucky primes?

Author(s): Lazarus: Gardiner: Metropolis; Ulam

Conjecture   If every second positive integer except 2 is remaining, then every third remaining integer except 3, then every fourth remaining integer etc. , an infinite number of the remaining integers are prime.

Keywords: lucky; prime; seive

Even vs. odd latin squares ★★★

Author(s): Alon; Tarsi

A latin square is even if the product of the signs of all of the row and column permutations is 1 and is odd otherwise.

Conjecture   For every positive even integer $ n $, the number of even latin squares of order $ n $ and the number of odd latin squares of order $ n $ are different.

Keywords: latin square

3-accessibility of Fibonacci numbers ★★

Author(s): Landman; Robertson

Question   Is the set of Fibonacci numbers 3-accessible?

Keywords: Fibonacci numbers; monochromatic diffsequences

Algorithm for graph homomorphisms ★★

Author(s): Fomin; Heggernes; Kratsch


Is there an algorithm that decides, for input graphs $ G $ and $ H $, whether there exists a homomorphism from $ G $ to $ H $ in time $ O(c^{|V(G)|+|V(H)|}) $ for some constant $ c $?

Keywords: algorithm; Exponential-time algorithm; homomorphism

Graphs with a forbidden induced tree are chi-bounded ★★★

Author(s): Gyarfas

Say that a family $ {\mathcal F} $ of graphs is $ \chi $-bounded if there exists a function $ f: {\mathbb N} \rightarrow {\mathbb N} $ so that every $ G \in {\mathcal F} $ satisfies $ \chi(G) \le f (\omega(G)) $.

Conjecture   For every fixed tree $ T $, the family of graphs with no induced subgraph isomorphic to $ T $ is $ \chi $-bounded.

Keywords: chi-bounded; coloring; excluded subgraph; tree

Are all Fermat Numbers square-free? ★★★


Conjecture   Are all Fermat Numbers \[ F_n  = 2^{2^{n } }  + 1 \] Square-Free?


Olson's Conjecture ★★

Author(s): Olson

Conjecture   If $ a_1,a_2,\ldots,a_{2n-1} $ is a sequence of elements from a multiplicative group of order $ n $, then there exist $ 1 \le j_1 < j_2 \ldots < j_n \le 2n-1 $ so that $ \prod_{i=1}^n a_{j_i} = 1 $.

Keywords: zero sum

Total Colouring Conjecture ★★★

Author(s): Behzad

Conjecture   A total coloring of a graph $ G = (V,E) $ is an assignment of colors to the vertices and the edges of $ G $ such that every pair of adjacent vertices, every pair of adjacent edges and every vertex and incident edge pair, receive different colors. The total chromatic number of a graph $ G $, $ \chi''(G) $, equals the minimum number of colors needed in a total coloring of $ G $. It is an old conjecture of Behzad that for every graph $ G $, the total chromatic number equals the maximum degree of a vertex in $ G $, $ \Delta(G) $ plus one or two. In other words, \[\chi''(G)=\Delta(G)+1\ \ or \ \ \Delta(G)+2.\]

Keywords: Total coloring

Covering systems with big moduli ★★

Author(s): Erdos; Selfridge

Problem   Does for every integer $ N $ exist a covering system with all moduli distinct and at least equal to~$ N $?

Keywords: covering system

Beneš Conjecture (graph-theoretic form) ★★★

Author(s): Beneš

Problem  ($ \dag $)   Find a sufficient condition for a straight $ \ell $-stage graph to be rearrangeable. In particular, what about a straight uniform graph?
Conjecture  ($ \diamond $)   Let $ L $ be a simple regular ordered $ 2 $-stage graph. Suppose that the graph $ L^m $ is externally connected, for some $ m\ge1 $. Then the graph $ L^{2m} $ is rearrangeable.


Decomposing a connected graph into paths. ★★★

Author(s): Gallai

Conjecture   Every simple connected graph on $ n $ vertices can be decomposed into at most $ \frac{1}{2}(n+1) $ paths.


One-way functions exist ★★★★


Conjecture   One-way functions exist.

Keywords: one way function

A diagram about funcoids and reloids ★★

Author(s): Porton

Define for posets with order $ \sqsubseteq $:

  1. $ \Phi_{\ast} f = \lambda b \in \mathfrak{B}: \bigcup \{ x \in \mathfrak{A} \mid f x \sqsubseteq b \} $;
  2. $ \Phi^{\ast} f = \lambda b \in \mathfrak{A}: \bigcap \{ x \in \mathfrak{B} \mid f x \sqsupseteq b \} $.

Note that the above is a generalization of monotone Galois connections (with $ \max $ and $ \min $ replaced with suprema and infima).

Then we have the following diagram:

What is at the node "other" in the diagram is unknown.

Conjecture   "Other" is $ \lambda f\in\mathsf{FCD}: \top $.
Question   What repeated applying of $ \Phi_{\ast} $ and $ \Phi^{\ast} $ to "other" leads to? Particularly, does repeated applying $ \Phi_{\ast} $ and/or $ \Phi^{\ast} $ to the node "other" lead to finite or infinite sets?

Keywords: Galois connections

Exact colorings of graphs ★★

Author(s): Erickson

Conjecture   For $ c \geq m \geq 1 $, let $ P(c,m) $ be the statement that given any exact $ c $-coloring of the edges of a complete countably infinite graph (that is, a coloring with $ c $ colors all of which must be used at least once), there exists an exactly $ m $-colored countably infinite complete subgraph. Then $ P(c,m) $ is true if and only if $ m=1 $, $ m=2 $, or $ c=m $.

Keywords: graph coloring; ramsey theory

Directed path of length twice the minimum outdegree ★★★

Author(s): Thomassé

Conjecture   Every oriented graph with minimum outdegree $ k $ contains a directed path of length $ 2k $.


Every 4-connected toroidal graph has a Hamilton cycle ★★

Author(s): Grunbaum; Nash-Williams

Conjecture   Every 4-connected toroidal graph has a Hamilton cycle.


Bases of many weights ★★★

Author(s): Schrijver; Seymour

Let $ G $ be an (additive) abelian group, and for every $ S \subseteq G $ let $ {\mathit stab}(S) = \{ g \in G : g + S = S \} $.

Conjecture   Let $ M $ be a matroid on $ E $, let $ w : E \rightarrow G $ be a map, put $ S = \{ \sum_{b \in B} w(b) : B \mbox{ is a base} \} $ and $ H = {\mathit stab}(S) $. Then $$|S| \ge |H| \left( 1 - rk(M) + \sum_{Q \in G/H} rk(w^{-1}(Q)) \right).$$

Keywords: matroid; sumset; zero sum

The Erdos-Turan conjecture on additive bases ★★★★

Author(s): Erdos; Turan

Let $ B \subseteq {\mathbb N} $. The representation function $ r_B : {\mathbb N} \rightarrow {\mathbb N} $ for $ B $ is given by the rule $ r_B(k) = \#\{ (i,j) \in B \times B : i + j = k \} $. We call $ B $ an additive basis if $ r_B $ is never $ 0 $.

Conjecture   If $ B $ is an additive basis, then $ r_B $ is unbounded.

Keywords: additive basis; representation function

Slice-ribbon problem ★★★★

Author(s): Fox

Conjecture   Given a knot in $ S^3 $ which is slice, is it a ribbon knot?

Keywords: cobordism; knot; ribbon; slice

Jones' conjecture ★★

Author(s): Kloks; Lee; Liu

For a graph $ G $, let $ cp(G) $ denote the cardinality of a maximum cycle packing (collection of vertex disjoint cycles) and let $ cc(G) $ denote the cardinality of a minimum feedback vertex set (set of vertices $ X $ so that $ G-X $ is acyclic).

Conjecture   For every planar graph $ G $, $ cc(G)\leq 2cp(G) $.

Keywords: cycle packing; feedback vertex set; planar graph

Inequality of the means ★★★


Question   Is is possible to pack $ n^n $ rectangular $ n $-dimensional boxes each of which has side lengths $ a_1,a_2,\ldots,a_n $ inside an $ n $-dimensional cube with side length $ a_1 + a_2 + \ldots a_n $?

Keywords: arithmetic mean; geometric mean; Inequality; packing

Domination in plane triangulations ★★

Author(s): Matheson; Tarjan

Conjecture   Every sufficiently large plane triangulation $ G $ has a dominating set of size $ \le \frac{1}{4} |V(G)| $.

Keywords: coloring; domination; multigrid; planar graph; triangulation

The Two Color Conjecture ★★

Author(s): Neumann-Lara

Conjecture   If $ G $ is an orientation of a simple planar graph, then there is a partition of $ V(G) $ into $ \{X_1,X_2\} $ so that the graph induced by $ X_i $ is acyclic for $ i=1,2 $.

Keywords: acyclic; digraph; planar

Cycles in Graphs of Large Chromatic Number ★★

Author(s): Brewster; McGuinness; Moore; Noel

Conjecture   If $ \chi(G)>k $, then $ G $ contains at least $ \frac{(k+1)(k-1)!}{2} $ cycles of length $ 0\bmod k $.

Keywords: chromatic number; cycles

Saturation in the Hypercube ★★

Author(s): Morrison; Noel; Scott

Question   What is the saturation number of cycles of length $ 2\ell $ in the $ d $-dimensional hypercube?

Keywords: cycles; hypercube; minimum saturation; saturation

3-flow conjecture ★★★

Author(s): Tutte

Conjecture   Every 4-edge-connected graph has a nowhere-zero 3-flow.

Keywords: nowhere-zero flow

Dividing up the unrestricted partitions ★★

Author(s): David S.; Newman

Begin with the generating function for unrestricted partitions:


Now change some of the plus signs to minus signs. The resulting series will have coefficients congruent, mod 2, to the coefficients of the generating series for unrestricted partitions. I conjecture that the signs may be chosen such that all the coefficients of the series are either 1, -1, or zero.

Keywords: congruence properties; partition

Ramsey properties of Cayley graphs ★★★

Author(s): Alon

Conjecture   There exists a fixed constant $ c $ so that every abelian group $ G $ has a subset $ S \subseteq G $ with $ -S = S $ so that the Cayley graph $ {\mathit Cayley}(G,S) $ has no clique or independent set of size $ > c \log |G| $.

Keywords: Cayley graph; Ramsey number

Alexa's Conjecture on Primality ★★

Author(s): Alexa

Definition   Let $ r_i $ be the unique integer (with respect to a fixed $ p\in\mathbb{N} $) such that

$$(2i+1)^{p-1} \equiv r_i \pmod p ~~\text{ and } ~ 0 \le r_i < p. $$

Conjecture   A natural number $ p \ge 8 $ is a prime iff $$ \displaystyle \sum_{i=1}^{\left \lfloor \frac{\sqrt[3]p}{2} \right \rfloor} r_i = \left \lfloor \frac{\sqrt[3]p}{2} \right \rfloor $$

Keywords: primality

Aharoni-Berger conjecture ★★★

Author(s): Aharoni; Berger

Conjecture   If $ M_1,\ldots,M_k $ are matroids on $ E $ and $ \sum_{i=1}^k rk_{M_i}(X_i) \ge \ell (k-1) $ for every partition $ \{X_1,\ldots,X_k\} $ of $ E $, then there exists $ X \subseteq E $ with $ |X| = \ell $ which is independent in every $ M_i $.

Keywords: independent set; matroid; partition

Seymour's self-minor conjecture ★★★

Author(s): Seymour

Conjecture   Every infinite graph is a proper minor of itself.

Keywords: infinite graph; minor

Which lattices occur as intervals in subgroup lattices of finite groups? ★★★★



There exists a finite lattice that is not an interval in the subgroup lattice of a finite group.

Keywords: congruence lattice; finite groups

Smooth 4-dimensional Poincare conjecture ★★★★

Author(s): Poincare; Smale; Stallings

Conjecture   If a $ 4 $-manifold has the homotopy type of the $ 4 $-sphere $ S^4 $, is it diffeomorphic to $ S^4 $?

Keywords: 4-manifold; poincare; sphere

Convex Equipartitions with Extreme Perimeter ★★

Author(s): Nandakumar

To divide a given 2D convex region C into a specified number n of convex pieces all of equal area (perimeters could be different) such that the total perimeter of pieces is (1) maximized (2) minimized.

Remark: It appears maximizing the total perimeter is the easier problem.

Keywords: convex equipartition

Almost all non-Hamiltonian 3-regular graphs are 1-connected ★★

Author(s): Haythorpe

Conjecture   Denote by $ NH(n) $ the number of non-Hamiltonian 3-regular graphs of size $ 2n $, and similarly denote by $ NHB(n) $ the number of non-Hamiltonian 3-regular 1-connected graphs of size $ 2n $.

Is it true that $ \lim\limits_{n \rightarrow \infty} \displaystyle\frac{NHB(n)}{NH(n)} = 1 $?

Keywords: Hamiltonian, Bridge, 3-regular, 1-connected

Big Line or Big Clique in Planar Point Sets ★★

Author(s): Kara; Por; Wood

Let $ S $ be a set of points in the plane. Two points $ v $ and $ w $ in $ S $ are visible with respect to $ S $ if the line segment between $ v $ and $ w $ contains no other point in $ S $.

Conjecture   For all integers $ k,\ell\geq2 $ there is an integer $ n $ such that every set of at least $ n $ points in the plane contains at least $ \ell $ collinear points or $ k $ pairwise visible points.

Keywords: Discrete Geometry; Geometric Ramsey Theory

Shuffle-Exchange Conjecture ★★★

Author(s): Beneš; Folklore; Stone

Given integers $ k,n\ge2 $, let $ d(k,n) $ be the smallest integer $ d\ge2 $ such that the symmetric group $ \frak S $ on the set of all words of length $ n $ over a $ k $-letter alphabet can be generated as $ \frak S = (\sigma \frak G)^d:=\sigma\frak G \sigma\frak G \dots \sigma\frak G $ ($ d $ times), where $ \sigma\in \frak S $ is the shuffle permutation defined by $ \sigma(x_1 x_2 \dots x_{n}) = x_2 \dots x_{n} x_1 $, and $ \frak G $ is the exchange group consisting of all permutations in $ \frak S $ preserving the first $ n-1 $ letters in the words.

Problem  (SE)   Evaluate $ d(k,n) $.
Conjecture  (SE)   $ d(k,n)=2n-1 $, for all $ k,n\ge2 $.


The 3n+1 conjecture ★★★

Author(s): Collatz

Conjecture   Let $ f(n) = 3n+1 $ if $ n $ is odd and $ \frac{n}{2} $ if $ n $ is even. Let $ f(1) = 1 $. Assume we start with some number $ n $ and repeatedly take the $ f $ of the current number. Prove that no matter what the initial number is we eventually reach $ 1 $.

Keywords: integer sequence

Universal point sets for planar graphs ★★★

Author(s): Mohar

We say that a set $ P \subseteq {\mathbb R}^2 $ is $ n $-universal if every $ n $ vertex planar graph can be drawn in the plane so that each vertex maps to a distinct point in $ P $, and all edges are (non-intersecting) straight line segments.

Question   Does there exist an $ n $-universal set of size $ O(n) $?

Keywords: geometric graph; planar graph; universal set

Odd-cycle transversal in triangle-free graphs ★★

Author(s): Erdos; Faudree; Pach; Spencer

Conjecture   If $ G $ is a simple triangle-free graph, then there is a set of at most $ n^2/25 $ edges whose deletion destroys every odd cycle.


Sum of prime and semiprime conjecture ★★

Author(s): Geoffrey Marnell

Conjecture   Every even number greater than $ 10 $ can be represented as the sum of an odd prime number and an odd semiprime .

Keywords: prime; semiprime

Erdős–Straus conjecture ★★

Author(s): Erdos; Straus


For all $ n > 2 $, there exist positive integers $ x $, $ y $, $ z $ such that $$1/x + 1/y + 1/z = 4/n$$.

Keywords: Egyptian fraction

Kneser–Poulsen conjecture ★★★

Author(s): Kneser; Poulsen

Conjecture   If a finite set of unit balls in $ \mathbb{R}^n $ is rearranged so that the distance between each pair of centers does not decrease, then the volume of the union of the balls does not decrease.

Keywords: pushing disks

Faithful cycle covers ★★★

Author(s): Seymour

Conjecture   If $ G = (V,E) $ is a graph, $ p : E \rightarrow {\mathbb Z} $ is admissable, and $ p(e) $ is even for every $ e \in E(G) $, then $ (G,p) $ has a faithful cover.

Keywords: cover; cycle

Partition of a cubic 3-connected graphs into paths of length 2. ★★

Author(s): Kelmans

Problem   Does every $ 3 $-connected cubic graph on $ 3k $ vertices admit a partition into $ k $ paths of length $ 2 $?